International Conference on Innovation & Research in Engineering, Science & Technology (ICIREST-19)

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Robust Face Recognition Using Largest Matching Area for Illumination and Occlusion
Country :: India
Authors :: Miss. Akshata Bansod || Prof. Nagma Sheikh
Page No. :: 01-06

Face detection has been one of the most active research topics in computer vision over the past decade. Viola-Jones face locator has accepted an extraordinary consideration, and has turned into the defacto standard of face identification approaches. In this project, we have used the Haar-like features to detect faces. Only the frontal faces can be detected. The face detection is done in three phases with the algorithm specified by Paul Viola and Michael J. Jones . We get some of non- faces which are classified as faces along with the faces. We tried to reduce those non-faces from the image and keep only faces using two algorithms. The first algorithm is based on observation method of the errors and removing.........

Keywords –Biometrics, Face recognition, Identification of person.

[1]. Wuming Zhang, Xi Zhao, Jean-Marie Morvan and Liming Chen, Senior Member, IEEE [1], "Improving Shadow Suppression for Illumination Robust Face Recognition" V1 IEEE,13 october 2017
[2]. H.Roy and D. Bhattacharjee [2], "Local-Gravity-Face (LG-face) for Illumination-Invariant and Heterogeneous Face Recognition" IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security (Volume: 11, Issue: 7, July 2016)
[3]. Yandong Wena, Weiyang Liub, Meng Yangc, Yuli Fua, Youjun Xianga, Rui Hua [3],"Structured Occlusion Coding for Robust Face Recognition" IEEE 2015
[4]. Ronghua Liang, Xiao-Xin Li [4], "Mixed Error Coding for Face Recognition with Mixed Occlusions" IJCAI 2015
[5]. Rui Min, Abdenour Hadid, and Jean-Luc Dugelay[5], "Efficient Detection of Occlusion prior to Robust Face Recognition.The Scientific World Journal Volume 2014

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Analysing Efficiency of Image by Improving Image Smoothness Using DCT and SIFT
Country :: India
Authors :: Ashwini Chakole || Prof. Nilesh P
Page No. :: 07-09

Whenever we consider any issue regarding issue while considering exchange of any information from one side to another, we always have to deal with images that too a high pixel density image and that image should be copy more forgery free. Forgery detection can be troublesome if it can or has connected some post handling operation like re-sizing, shifting, resolution, JPEG pressure etc. In this paper we will be going to represent a new method of copy-move attack detection using DCT and SIFT[e-sift] technique. using proposed system we will be able to detect the forge data mainly images and also estimate the parameter of the forgery. the recognition proceed by matching individual features to a database for performing verification.

Keywords: e-sift, sift, dct, jpeg, pixel

[1]. Li Shanshan Research of features design and similarity measurement in computer vision[D].PhD thesis, University of Science and Technology of China, 2010.
[2]. Cheng Lei. Target Recognition Method Based on Structure of Local Feature[D], University of Science and Technology of China, 2009.
[3]. Mikolajczyk K, Schmid C.A Performance Evaluation of Local Description[J]. IEEE Trans on Pat Analysis and Machine Intelligence,2005,27(10):1615-1630.
[4]. Mikolajczyk K, Tuytelaars T, Schmid C, et al. A comparsion of affine region detectors[J]. International Journal of Computer Vision, 2005, 65(1):43-72.
[5]. Douze M, Jegou H, Schmid C. An image-based approach to video copy detection with spatio-temporal post-filtering[J].IEEE Transaction on Multimedia,2008,12(4):257-266.

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Analysis and Recognition of Face using Local Binary Feature Learning
Country :: India
Authors :: Ms. Deepa Bagde || Prof. Nagma Sheikh
Page No. :: 10-14

In this paper, Facial expressions and gestures provide intuitional cues for the interpersonal communication. Imparting intelligence to the computer for identifying facial expressions is a crucial task. Facial expressions and the emotions are governed by identification of facial muscle movement by the visual cortex and training a machine to identify these highly movements is an our primary interest. This thesis presents robust facial expression analysis algorithms for the static images as well as an efficient extension to sequence of images. We present an efficient pre processing method of the feature which eliminates the effect of illumination on the detected face part images thus making them efficient..........

Keywords:Biometrics, Face recognition, Identification of person

[1]. Yueqi Duan and Jiwen Lu [1],"context-aware local binary feature learning for face recognition"," IEEE pattern, vol. 40, p. 1139, 1153.
[2]. Jiwen Lu, Venice Erin Liong and Jie Zhou [2], "Simultaneous Local Binary Feature Learning and Encoding for Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Face Recognition" IEEE Pattern, 2017
[3]. Jiwen Lu and Jian jiang Feng [3], "topology preserving graph matching (TPGM) method for partial face recognition" 2018, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 86–96, 2018
[4]. Jiwen Lu and Jie Zhou [4], "cost-sensitive local binary feature learning for facial age estimation" 2015, Third IEEE International Conference on, pp. 200–205, IEEE, 2015

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Thermally Controlled MEMS Switch
Country :: India
Authors :: Prof. Gaurav R. Agrawal
Page No. :: 15-19

This paper presents calculations, modelling and simulation of thermally controlled MEMS switch. The design is made up of a thermal bimorph. Thermal bimorphs are constructed using two materials with different thermal expansion coefficients. The deflection also depends on material properties such as thermal conductivity, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. The main objective of this work is to investigate the displacement of around 10μm on the free end of a cantilever structure for a resonance frequency of 1kHz and 4kHz with a drive-in voltage of less than 0.5V. Deformation or displacement also depends on the length of the resonant beams............

[1]. Sagnik Pal and HuikaiXie, "Analysis and Simulation of Curved Bimorph Microactuators" ISBN 978-1-4398-3402-2 Vol 2,2010.
[2]. Younghnk Cho, Beomjoon Kim, Seokkwan Hong, Jeongjin Kang, "Fabrication and Characterization of thermally actuated bimorph Probe for Living Cell Measurements with Experimental and Numerical Analysis", Vol 20 No 3, pp 297-309,2006.
[3]. Chang Liu, "Foundations of MEMS", Pearson International Edition, 2006.
[4]. J. Wei, T. Chu Duc, G.K. Lau and P.M. Sarro "Novel Electrothermal Bimorph Actuator for Large out-of-plane displacement and force" IEEE January 13-17, pp 46-49, 2008.
[5]. Won-KyuJeung, Seog-Moon Choi and Yong-Jun Kim, "Large Displacement Polymer Bimorph Actuator for Out-of-Plane Motion" Journal Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 263~267, 2006.

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: "PDM Plastic Recycling Machine"
Country :: India
Authors :: Miss. Kajal Dhengare || Prof. NagmaSheikh
Page No. :: 20-22

We know that plastic is a good friend of human being as it can be molded to any shapes as desired. The main problem found by us is difficulty in managing plastic pet bottles. The environment is littered by plastic wastes especially bottles and it causes pollution and health hazards. The use of plastic is increased now days in many industries like automobile, packaging, medical , etc. the reason behind this is that the plastic made things are quite easier to manufacture, handle and reliable to use. So the plastic good manufacturing industries are striving hard to produce good quality products at large scale and cheaper cost. We hope to make a product that can recycle plastic bottles from public disposal system. Either crushing or grinding the plastic for recycling.

Keywords: Arduino, plastic recycling, ATM, vending machine, GSM, microcontroller, RFID, etc.

[1]. Nikita Khandelwal, ArjooAgarwal, HarshaJaisani, KavitaBhagwani, Prachi Singh Kuntal, Mr.Arvind Sharma, "Change – ExchangeCurrency based vending Machine using VHDL" Proceedings of International Journal of Electronics Engineering 331.
[2]. OlagokeOlabisi, KolapoAdewale, "Handbook of Thermoplastics".
[3]. Engineers India Research Institute, "Plastic Waste Recycling Technology" .
[4]. YoucefGhernouti, Bahia Rabehi, Brahim Safi and RabahChaid, "Use Of Recycled Plastic Bagwaste In The Concrete" Journal of International Scientific Publications: Materials, Methods and Technologies Volume 8, ISSN 1314-7269 (Online), Published at:
[5]. Alirezaakbarzadeh and mohammadsadeghi parameter study in plastic injection molding process using statistical methods and IWO Algorithm International journal of modeling and optimization, vol.1,No.2,June 2011pp-141

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Review Paper on Computer Vision Based Lane Keeping Assistance System: A Design Approach
Country :: India
Authors :: Manoj Demde || Miss. Payal Admane || Dr. Prashant Sharma
Page No. :: 23-27

In this paper we presents a lateral control method for Automatic Lane Keeping System on road. Lane keeping is the component of Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS). It is an advanced part of Lane Departure Warning System (LDWS). Three main techniques are proposed for road Lane Keeping Assistance System (LKAS). First, we proposed lane marking detection. Second, lane markings tracking and third we approach to steering wheel angle control based on the position of detected lane markings. A Lane Detection and Lane Tracking system is an important element of many Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Lane detection and tracking system has been an active research area in the past twenty years in the field of Driver Assistance Application. The lane detection and lane tracking is a complicated problem in Lane Keeping Assistance System (LKAS). The lane detection process is used to detect the lane marking and lane tracking process is used to track the position of road lane markings...........

Keywords: Lane Keeping Assistance System, Lane Detection, Lane Tracking, Lane Departure Warning.

[1]. Chanho Lee, Senior Member, IEEE, and Ji-Hyun Moon, "Robust Lane Detection and Tracking for Real-Time Applications", IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems 2018.
[2]. Deok-Kwon Lee, Ju-Seok Shin, Je-Han Jung, Sang-Jun Park, Se-Jin Oh, In-Soo Lee, "Real-Time Lane Detection and Tracking System Using Simple Filter and Kalman Filter", 2017 IEEE.
[3]. Hui Zhou, Han Wang, "Vision-based Lane Detection and Tracking for Driver Assistance Systems: a Survey", 2017 IEEE 8th International Conference on CIS & RAM, Ningbo, China.
[4]. "Lane Keeping System by Visual Technology", American Society for Engineering Education, 2017.
[5]. Manoj Demde, Dr. Prashant. Sharma, Dr. R.V. Kshirsagar, "A Review Paper on Intelligent Lane Departure Warning System for Driver Assistance ", Pak Journal of Biotechnology, Vol.13, Pp 282- 286, 2016, Scopus Index Journal.

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Turbo Code Based Transmitter Module For MIMO-OFDM System
Country :: India
Authors :: Dr. Mrs. S.W.Varade || Prafulla.R.Gotmare
Page No. :: 28-34

Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) transmission system is one of the most promising technologies which uses multiple antennas in the transmitter as well as receiver side and is currently used for high-rate wireless communication. MIMO uses multiple transmitters and receivers to transfer more amounts of data at a time. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a multiple carrier modulation scheme in which a data stream which is at high rate is split into multiple low rate data stream and then it is modulated using subcarriers which are effectively orthogonal to each other. MIMO-OFDM is the air interface that is used for 4G and 5G wireless communication. Channel coding is the fundamental..........

Keywords: MIMO, OFDM, 4G, 5G, Turbo Codes, LDPC codes, BER (Bit Error Rate).

[1]. Lixia Xiao, Yue Xiao, Yan Zhao, Ping Yang, Marco Di Renzo, Shaoqian Li and Wei Xiang "Time-Domain, Turbo Equalization for Single-Carrier Generalized Spatial Modulation". IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 10.1109/TWC.2017.2713777J.
[2]. Arun Agarwal, Saurabh N. Mehta "Design and Performance Analysis of MIMO- OFDM System Using Different Antenna configurations". International Conference on Electrical, Electronics, and Optimization Techniques (ICEEOT) 2016.
[3]. Jyoti Chand, Deependra Pandey" Performance Analysis of Turbo Coded OFDM System" Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 5( Version 4), May 2014, pp.121-126.
[4]. Ahmad Hasan Khan, Dr K C Roy "Comparison of Turbo Codes and Low Density Parity Check Codes" IOSR Journal of Electronics

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: A Novel Data Hiding Scheme for High Dynamic Range Images
Country :: India
Authors :: Punam wadekar || Snehal Paliwal
Page No. :: 35-40

In this paper, we propose a novel data hiding algorithm for high dynamic range (HDR) images encoded by the OpenEXR file format. The proposed algorithm exploits each of three 10-bit mantissa fields as an embedding unit in order to conceal k bits of a secret message using an optimal base which produces the least pixel variation. An aggressive bit encoding and decomposition scheme is recommended, which offers a high probability to convey (k+1) bits without increasing pixel variation caused by message concealment. In addition, we present a bit inversion embedding strategy to further increase the capacities.The generated stego HDR images and their tone-mapped low dynamic range (LDR) images reveal no perceptual differences when subjected to quantitative testing by Visual Difference Predictor.

Keywords:high dynamic range images, data hiding, OpenEXR, adaptive, optimal base, Visual Difference Predictor

[1]. D. Artz, "Digital steganography: Hiding data within data," IEEE Internet Comput., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 75–80, May/Jun. 2001.
[2]. F. Banterle, A. Artusi, K. Debattista, and A. Chalmers, Advanced high dynamic range imaging: theory and practice, AK Peters Ltd.,
Natick MA, 2011, pp. 22–26.
[3]. E. Reinhard G. Ward, S. Pattanaik, P. Debevec, W. Heidrich and K. Myazkowski, High dynamic range imaging: acquisition,
display, and image-based lighting, 2nd ed., Morgan Kaufmann, 2010, pp. 103–104.
[4]. B. Hoefflinger, High-dynamic-range (HDR) vision, microelectronics, image processing, computer graphics, Springer, 2007, pp.
[5]. G. J. Ward, "The RADIANCE lighting simulation and rendering system," Computer Graphics (Proceedings of '94 SIGGRAPH
conf.), pp. 459–72, Jul. 1994
[6]. G. W. Larson, "LogLuv encoding for full-gamut, high-dynamic range images," Journal of Graphics Tools, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 15–31,

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Responsive Cardiac Pacemaker Using VHDL
Country :: India
Authors :: Rahul L. Durge
Page No. :: 41-48

This paper is aimed to design a single chamber rate responsive cardiac pacemaker, implement it in VLSI. A state machine approach has been followed to achieve the desired purpose. The heart of the pacemaker system rests in the pulse generator which forms the major portion of the paper. It has been developed using VHDL and implemented in hardware using FPGA. In the FSM, first an input event is detected. Once this input is detected a timer is set for approximately 0.8 sec, which will be the time between heartbeats, thus giving us 72 heartbeats per minute. Once the timer expires.............

Keywords- Pulse Generator, Timer, Timing Engine, VHDL.

[1]. LSI Implementation of a Demand mode Dual Chamber Rate Responsive Cardiac Pacemaker 2012
[2]. Frank Vahid, Digital Design, John Wiley & Sons, Pg 138- 139, 2005.
[3]. Sandro A.P.Haddad, Richard P.M.Houben, Wouter A.Serdijn, The Evolution of Pacemakers, IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, Pg 1-5, May-June 2006.
[4]. Dominique Mery, Neeraj Kumar Singh, Technical Report on Formal Development of Two-Electrode Cardiac Pacing System, Universit´e Henri Poincar´e Nancy 1, Pg 4-6, April 13 2010.
[5]. Surakha Palreddy, Embedded Pacemaker Design, Pg 2-5, 1995

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: FPGA Implementation of Decimation Filter using Canonic Signed Method
Country :: India
Authors :: Ku. Rupali B. Sawai || Dr. R. M. Deshmukh
Page No. :: 49-53

The hearing aid decimation filter is one of the technique employed with the help of FPGA simulation in which the problems of hearing loss person are considered and provides a better solution for hearing aid in quite as well as in whisper conditions for clear hearing. The design of decimator filter requires a set of filters for hearing aid applications that gives reasonable signal for the concerned type of hearing loss. Using a variable bandwidth filter, helps a person with hearing loss to listen and communicate by making sounds audible and clearer. The design of variable bandwidth filter is carried out for gain, such that, the different bands combine to give a frequency response that closely...........

Key Words: Decimation filter, CIC filter, FIR Filter, FPGA, Half Band filter, MATLAB, Xilinx

[1]. K. Grover, R. Mehra, Chandani," FPGA Based Decimator Using Fully Parallel Technique for Hearing Aid Applications."3rd IEEE International Conference on "Computational Intelligence and Communication Technology" (IEEE-CICT 2017).
[2]. T. Rahate, S. Ladhake, U. Ghate,"FPGA Based Implementation of Decimator Filter for Hearing Aid Application."International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET). Vol-05, Issue-07, pp- 2289, july 2018.
[3]. V.Karunakergoud, D.Kavitha, S.Swetha "Wide Band Rate Conversion using CIC Filters for WirelessCommunication Receiver", International Journal Of Recent Development in Engineering and Technology(IJRDET) Vol.3, pp. 144-150, September 2014.
[4]. Siddharth Raghuvanshi, Subodh Goyal, "Devlopment of Digital Signal Processing Platform for Digital Hearing Aid",International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, Vol. 3, Issue 2, February 2014.
[5]. Divya Naga, Padmini P,"High Speed And Multilplier less Implementation of Half-Band Filter",International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) Vol. 4 Issue 02, February-2015.

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Segmentation of Liver Organ using Marker Watershed Transform Algorithm for CT Scan Images
Country :: India
Authors :: Shraddha Sangewar || Dr.Prema Daigavane || Somulu Gugulothu
Page No. :: 54-58

The Liver is a largest gland in the body. Distinctdiseases affected on the liver. Liver diseases is one of the most serious health problem worldwide. For detecting the liver diseases the Segmentation Technique is essential. Segmentation is used for the classification of liver diseases. The liver diseases are focal or diffused is easily understood by the physician using segmentation. We use CT scan image for segmentation but the noise is present in the image. Therefore preprocessing is applied on the image for the removal of noise. In this paper, Watershed Transform segmentation Algorithm is used because it produce complete division of images in separate region even if contrast is poor. Therefore this method could be achieved 92.1% accuracy.

Keyword: Liver Diseases; Preprossesing; Segmenation; Watershed Transform Algorithm

[1]. Suhuai Luo, Jesse S. Jin, Stephan K. Chalup, Guoyu Qian, "A Liver Segmentation Algorithm Based on Wavelets and Machine Learning" The University of Newcastle, Australia 978-0-7695-3645-3/09 $25.00 © 2009 IEEE DOI 10.1109/CINC.2009.225.
[2]. Nasrul Humaimi Mahmood, Noraishikin Zulkarnain and Nor Saradatul Akmar Zulkifli "Ultrasound Liver Image Enhancement Using Watershed Segmentation Method" Nasrul Humaimi Mahmood, Noraishikin Zulkarnain, Nor Saradatul Akmar Zulkifli / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 3, May-Jun 2012
[3]. Niket Amoda1, Ramesh K Kulkarni2 "Image Segmentation and Detection using Watershed Transform and Region Based Image Retrieval" International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technologyin Computer Science (IJETTCS) ISSN 2278-6856 Volume 2, Issue 2,March – April 2013

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Statistical Approach For Median Filtering Detection Using Difference Image
Country :: India
Authors :: Shubhangi Kalambe || Prof. Nilesh P. Bodane
Page No. :: 59-62

We consider any algoritham in image processing for filtering the difference image or for the compailing the original image with the duplicate image we use improved median filter algorithm specially desingend and formulating for used of de noising and edge detection preservation of highly corrupted images mean ,median and improved mean filter is used for the noise detection fundamentals of the image processing image degretation and restoration process are illustrated in the figure the picture are corrupted with various noise densityand reconstructed the noise is guassian and impuls (salt and pepper) noise image processing always deals with the number of formats of jpeg , png , tiff but whenever we need to discuss the image it is very well that it is in pixel . here in our paper by designing an median filter we will find the difference image . this is design using MATLAB.

Keywords: NOMA, Filters, Noise, Image, Matlab.

[1]. C. Chen, J. Ni and J. Huang, "Blind Detection of Median Filtering in Digital Images: A Difference Domain Based Approach", IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 22, no.12, (2013), pp. 4699-4710.
[2]. H. Yuan, "Blind Forensics of Median Filtering in Digital Images", IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, vol. 6, no. 4, (2011), pp. 1335-1345
[3]. K. Matthias and F. Jessica, "On Detection of Median Filtering in Digital Images", Proceedings of the IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging, (2010), pp. 754110--754110.
[4]. X. Kang, M. C. Stamm, A. Peng and K. J. Ray Liu, "Robust Median Filtering Forensics Using an Autoregressive Model", IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, vol. 8, no. 9, (2013), pp. 1456-1468.
[5]. P. Alin C and F. Hany, "Exposing Digital Forgeries by Detecting Traces of Resampling", IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 53, no. 2 II, (2005), pp. 758-767.

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Automatic Breathalyzer Using Dynamic Signature
Country :: India
Authors :: Ms.Shweta Mehar || Ms.Rohini Pochhi
Page No. :: 63-67

This paper proposes an ignition system for real time detection of driver's face recognition, finger print authentication as well as alcohol intoxication and subsequently alerting them. The main aim of this proposed system is to reduce the number of accidents due to driver's drowsiness and alcohol intake to increase the transportation safety as well as protect the vehicle from theft. This proposed system contains 8-megapixels digital USB camera, ArduinoATmega36 loaded. Face detection is the important part of this project will be done using

Keywords- Drowsiness detection, Alcohol intoxication, face recognition, finger print authonication, Open CV, Arduino UNO and GSM.

[1]. C. R. Prashanth, T. Sagar, N. Bhat, D. Naveen, S. R. Rupanagudi and R. A. Kumar, "Obstacle detection & elimination of shadows for an image processing based automated vehicle," 2013 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCI), Mysore, 2013, pp. 367-372.
[2]. Z. Liu, A. Zhang and S. Li, "Vehicle anti-theft tracking system based on Internet of things," Proceedings of 2013 IEEE International Conference on Vehicular Electronics and Safety, Dongguan,2013,pp.48-52. doi: 10.1109/ICVES.2013.6619601
[3]. K. S. Khangura, N. V. Middleton and M. M. Ollivier, "Vehicle anti-theft system uses radio frequency identification," IEE Colloquium on Vehicle Security Systems, London, 1993, pp. 4/1-4/7.
[4]. S. R. Rupanagudi et al., "A novel and secure methodology for keyless ignition and controlling an automobile using air gestures," 2016 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCI), Jaipur, 2016, pp. 1416- 1422.
[5]. A. Nigam, P. Khan and P. Gupta, "Fusion of Palm print and Finger-KnucklePrint for Human Personal Recognition," 2015 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence, Cape Town, 2015, pp. 341-348.

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: FFT Design Using Model Sim
Country :: India
Authors :: Ms. Sneha Kherde
Page No. :: 68-72

FFT is used in digital communication and in digital signal processing and is widely used as a mathematical tool in different areas. Fast Fourier Transforms are algorithms for quick calculation of discrete fourier transform of data vector. In this paper, we had designed an 8-point FFT and its computation time. Here we had simulated and implemented Radix-2 8-point FFT in hardware using hardware language (VHDL) here time constraint is measured with the help of ModelSim SE.

Keywords- DFT, FFT, FPGA, butterfly, radix.

[1]. Saad Bouguezel, M. Omair Ahmad,"IMPROVED RADIX-4 AND RADIX-8 FFT ALGORITHMS"IEEE. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Concordia University 1455 de Maisonneuve Blvd. West Montreal, P.Q., Canada.
[2]. Ali Saidi ," DECIMATION-IN-TIME-FREQUENCY FFT ALGORITHM" Motorola Applied Research, Paging and Wireless Data Group Boynton Beach.
[3]. Rizalafande Che Ismail and Razaidi Hussin "High Performance Complex Number Multiplier Using Booth-Wallace Algorithm" School of Microelectronic Engineering Kolej University Kejuruteraan Utara Malaysia.
[4]. J.G.Proakis and D.G.Manolakis,"Digital Signal Processing, Principles,algorithms and applications" Prentice Hall India Publication.
[5]. J.A.Hidalgo,V.Moreno-Vergara,O.Oballe, "A Radix-8 Multiplier Unit Design For Specfic Purpose",Dept of the Electronica, E.T.S.I.Industriales

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Design of Differential Ring Oscillator Implemented Using CMOS Technology
Country :: India
Authors :: S.S.Uparkar || S.D.Jirapure || V.V.Rathi
Page No. :: 73-79

A oscillator can be defined as an electronic circuit producing square or a sine wave as an output. The oscillator thus converts direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC) signal. Its applications are not confined to the generation of sinusoidal output signals but it is widelyused in radio and mobile communication applications. The paper focuses on the design and study of CMOS oscillators such as voltage controlled oscillators (VCO's). We have designed a VCO consisting of a multistage differential Ring oscillators .The design is verified and analysed by simulation process on both schematic and layout level in submicron process.

Keywords- Voltage controlled oscillators, direct current, Alternating current, Differential Ring oscillators.

[1]. A CMOS VCO for lV, lGHz PLL Applications published in 2004 IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Advanced System Integrated Circuits(AF'-ASIC2004)/ Aug. 4
[2]. A Tail Current-Shaping Technique to Reduce Phase Noise in LC VCOs published in the Ninth International Conference on Electro Measuremen& Instrumentsof ICEMI'2009
[3]. Proceedings ofIC-BNMT20 10 A 0.18 micremeter Low Power CMOS radio frequency LC oscillator for broadband and wireless communication applications.
[4]. Low-power CMOS integrated circuits for radio frequency applications by M.J. Deen, R. Murji, A. Fakhr, N. Jafferali and W.L. Ngan
[5]. Design of Low-Phase-Noise CMOS Ring Oscillators IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS—II: ANALOG AND DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 49, NO. 5, MAY 2002 Liang Dai, Member, IEEE, and Ramesh Harjani, Senior Member, IEEE